While some pieces of conceptual architecture guide out imagine toward distant planets, others plunge us into the depths of the ocean. These underwater cities concepts, dreamed up by illustrators, architects, and designers, imagine the sorts of structures we might inhabit beneath the watery surfaces.
A collection of specialised organisms function as a whole, with some pods being industrial, energy, or food producers. Dreamed up by Arup Biomimetics, presented at the 2010 Venice Biennale and pictured above.
Sub Biosphere 2
This self-contained city would float on the surface of the ocean or hide in the depths, and would be used for aquanauts and oceanographic life sciences. Designed by Phil Pauley.